In modern electronics components there are numerous reasons why a BGA may need to be replaced on a circuit board. This requires that a BGA replacement process, otherwise known as “remove and replace”, needs to take place. A BGA replacement may need to take place because the wrong component was initially installed on the PCB. In some cases a replacement BGA may need to be placed onto the PCB due to the actual failure of the component. Finally the BGA may need to be swapped in cases where the alloy needs to be changed.
The first and most obvious step in the replacement of the BGA process is to make sure that the right component is being placed on to the correct location on the PCB. Not only must this be in the right location but the component must be in the correct orientation. This is confirmed by matching the part orientation designator, usually a notch or a tick on the part, to the silk pattern of the PCB.
The next step in the BGA replacement process is to pick the right process given the device at hand, the board it is being placed on, the skill level of the operator and type of rework equipment it is being processed on. There are numerous methods for attaching the replacement BGA but the processes can be divided in to the flux and solder paste attachment methods. There have been numerous articles and papers describing the difference in first pass yield between using ”tacky” flux and solder paste in the BGA replacement process.
As a last step the device needs to be inspected in order to insure that the BGA replacement process has been done properly. The inspection criteria normally used rely on the IPC A-610 standards, the IPC-7095 BGA processing guidelines or an internally-generated customer-specific specification. By following these steps a good outcome can be assured for BGA replacement.